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What happens when we die? Is that the end of everything or is that the beginning of everything? What does Afterlife, Purgatory and the Day of Judgement mean? A brief and concise text about the primary principles of the Islamic beliefs to familiarize themselves and their acquaintances with them. In this text, Shaheed Dastghaib has presented arguments, verses and traditions concerning Barzakh.

A philosophical discourse about the nature of eternity, and regarding man's true self the soul necessarily subsisting eternally. This book presents the journey of hereafter in twelve stages, from the last moments of death to sirat al-Mustaqeem in hereafter. The third volume of the Let's learn The present work discusses the subject of "Resurrection", which is one of the volumes of the "Splendid Light of Wisdom" Collection with the aim to increase the level of knowledge in the young gener. This text, based on the book Manazil al-Akhira by the Late Marhoom Abbas al-Qummi will take the reader step by step from the moment the soul departs from the body up to the gate of either Paradise.

Skip to main content. View this page in our App. View View. Life After Death and the Hereafter - Lecture 7. Life After Death and the Hereafter - Lecture 6. Life After Death and the Hereafter - Lecture 5. Life After Death and the Hereafter - Lecture 4. Life After Death and the Hereafter - Lecture 3.

Life After Death and the Hereafter - Lecture 2. Life After Death and the Hereafter - Lecture 1. Islamic Belief System - Session Is there any connection between 1 Pet and 1 Pet —22 and, if so, what is the connection? The extensive analysis by W. Dalton cautions us that we should not read this text through the prism of the later Creeds. The apostle Paul provides most information about this theme, and it is arguable whether his views are consistent. We shall begin with these.

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In the letter to the Thessalonians c. It is clear that Paul had proclaimed to the Thessalonians that Christ would return soon, but when some of the congregation there had died the Christians in Thessalonica were understandably worried that the departed would miss out on their eternal rewards because they would not be alive to witness the return of Jesus in glory.

In —18 Paul offers comfort to the Thessalonians by assuring them that their deceased loved ones will indeed receive their due reward, and he uses the model of Jesus to demonstrate this point. Just as Jesus died and rose again, so too will God bring with him those who have fallen asleep v. So important are these dead Christians that Paul predicts that when Jesus returns in glory at the end of the age, those who are dead in Christ will rise first, and then they will float towards heaven to meet the returning Jesus.

Only after this will those who are alive at the end be transported towards the heavens where they too will meet Jesus and those who have been raised vv.

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In offering these words of comfort to the Thessalonians, Paul strongly suggests that the dead currently have no life at all until they are resurrected. This does not suggest any post-mortem existence, but indicates that their lifelessness now is temporary and akin to the state of sleep.

Resurrection in Judaism

At one point he states that if Christ has not been raised, then those who have fallen asleep have indeed perished v. This claim too is difficult to reconcile with the idea of an intermediate state where the dead would presently be enjoying their reward in heaven. The Christian dead will be raised to life when Jesus returns v. The apostle then turns to another area of concern for the Corinthians, the process of resurrection and the nature of the resurrected body.

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Here Paul describes in detail that the resurrected body is vastly different from the physical body that died. It is not an entirely new entity but is a transformation of the physical body into a spiritual body which is powerful and eternal vv. The dead have perished and they are now lifeless, but they will be given a new, eternal and transformed body when Jesus returns in glory.

As in 1 Thessalonians, it is the experience of Jesus that provides the working model for this view of the afterlife. But some scholars have argued that Paul is not entirely consistent on this issue. They contend that at other points in his epistles, the apostle seems to embrace the notion of the intermediate state, where the deceased experience life again immediately after their passing.

Two small Pauline passages are usually produced to support this argument. In Phil —24 Paul expresses his wish that he desires to be with Christ, but it is more necessary that he remains in the flesh to continue his work. The implication here is that if Paul is not living in the flesh, then he will be with Christ.

‘Life after Life after Death’ Is Wright Right about the Afterlife?

Here Paul seemingly juxtaposes two states of existence, at home in the body and away from the Lord, and away from the body and at home in the Lord. Again it is argued that since there is no indication that death involves a period of lifelessness before life is renewed at the resurrection the apostle once more emphasises the intermediate state. Other scholars read these texts differently, and do so largely on the basis of the Thessalonian and Corinthian texts discussed above, which both seem to deny the prospect of an intermediate existence after death.

In terms of the Philippians passage, it has been maintained that the dominant idea here is not a post-mortem life in the presence of Christ but rather that once death has come and the body lies lifeless with no perception of time, then death does fulfil the desire to be with Christ. Following death the next thing experienced by the believer is union with Christ on the day of resurrection. The final emphasis in this section falls on the judgement, where Paul states that all must appear before the judgement seat of Christ where each person will be judged according to what he or she has done in the body v.

If there is any reference to the intermediate state in 2 Cor —8, and that is questionable, then it is completely overshadowed by the notion of the future resurrection and its accompanying judgement. Our discussion of Paul can be summarised quickly.

Jewish Beliefs on the Afterlife | SpringerLink

In his major considerations of post-mortem existence, Paul adopts the death after life model. Upon the return of Jesus, their raised physical bodies will be miraculously transformed into eternal spiritual bodies, in much the same manner as the resurrection of Jesus. The two short Pauline texts which some scholars have argued demonstrate that Paul also accepted life after life or an intermediate state of existence between death and the final resurrection, cannot carry the weight assigned to them. Neither clearly delineates that the apostle held such a belief, and that he did is unlikely in the light of its absence from 1 Thess — We may leave the Pauline literature and turn to other texts that have been offered as definitive evidence of the intermediate state in the New Testament literature.

The most important example of the life after life scenario is the parable of the rich man and Lazarus in Luke — In this unparalleled text the poor beggar Lazarus dies and goes immediately to heaven and resides with Abraham, while the rich man dies and goes to Hades where he is tormented.

The rich man asks Abraham if Lazarus can be sent to his five brothers to warn them of the fate they face. Abraham declines this request because the brothers already have Moses and the prophets, and should know what to do. But the rich man persists and says that if they are visited by someone who has died they will repent.

In the final verse the point is made that if they have not heeded Moses and the prophets, then they will not be convinced if someone should rise from the dead. Even this brief summary of the story suffices to show that it presumes the life after life scenario. Lazarus and the rich man find themselves alive after their deaths and residing respectively in paradise and in Hades. That they experience their fates before the final judgement is clear from the fact that the rich man pleads to have his brothers on earth saved so that they do not suffer the same fate as him.

This much is clear. But there is widespread scholarly dissension concerning whether or not Luke himself accepted this afterlife scenario. For many scholars this text above all others provides irrefutable evidence that, in transmitting this tradition, Luke accepted the notion of an intermediate state, which accords with the story of Jesus and the thief that was discussed above. Those scholars opposed to this view try to explain it away.

Perhaps the most dominant objection is that this story of the afterlife appears in the form of a parable, and it should not be taken literally in any sense. The point Luke is making in this parable is not to describe the afterlife conditions of the poor and the rich, but rather to highlight the future dangers that the careless rich face. While it is doubtless true that parables are not to be taken as concrete descriptions of actual events, they do take features of everyday life or commonly held beliefs and use them to make an unexpected point.

The Book of Revelation seems to know of the intermediate state as well as a complex notion of the resurrection. In —11 John refers to the souls of those who had been killed for the word of God and who reside under the heavenly altar. They cry to God to avenge them but are told they must wait a little longer. These people are mentioned again in —17, when the seer witnesses a great multitude in heaven clothed in white robes, and is told that they are the martyrs of the great tribulation.

These people are clearly in heaven now and are not sleeping in the earth awaiting their resurrection from the dead. At the end of the document where the end times are narrated, John refers to a first resurrection when the righteous rule with Christ for 1, years —6. After this period, Satan will be released from prison but after his final defeat there will be a second resurrection when all the wicked will be thrown into the eternal fire — There is, at least for some, life after life or an intermediate state.

Attempts to explain away or to deny the intermediate state in these texts are not entirely convincing. Bacchiocchi suggests that the author of the Apocalypse was merely providing a symbolic representation for those facing martyrdom that they would ultimately be vindicated by God. Wright also struggles with this text, and argues that it means no more than that the martyrs will be raised in the future at the resurrection but are not yet raised. Yet, Wright also concedes that this passage does involve a temporary abode for the righteous and martyred dead. Wright is correct, however, that the emphasis in the Christian Apocalypse still falls on the final two resurrections when the righteous will reign with Christ and the wicked will be thrown to the eternal fire.

Our survey of the more important themes and texts on the early Christian views of the afterlife supports the work of Cullmann in the sense that the model of death after life, inactivity after death until a restoration to life at the final resurrection, is the dominant view in the New Testament literature.

Yet Cullmann was mistaken in his judgement that the concept of life after life, an intermediate of existence state bridging death and the day of resurrection, was absent from the Christian canon. While it is difficult to prove that Paul held fast to this notion, there is little doubt that it does appear quite clearly in both the Gospel of Luke and the Book of Revelation. But it is also true that both the evangelist and the seer do not emphasise this element at the expense of the final and universal resurrection of the dead.

The intermediate state therefore crops up here and there in primitive Christian eschatology, but in the grand scheme of things it plays a small and secondary role. The earliest Christians were therefore much more focused on the events when Jesus returned at the end of the age when the dead would be raised to glory or to punishment than on their fate immediately after death. That we find both schemes in the New Testament should occasion no real surprise. The Judaism from which the Christian tradition emerged also contained both concepts and variations within them, which were never presented in any systematic or organised fashion.


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Ben —8; 1 En —7; —4; ; —9; —15; Sib. Wis —4; 1 En —8; 4 Ezra , 78—80, 88, 95; 4 Macc ; ; ; — As one trained in Greek philosophy, Philo had no truck at all with the notion of resurrection.